In 2011, the region had an estimated population of 250,000 people. A former surveyor with Bougainville Copper, Ona was a key figure in the secessionist conflict and had refused to formally join the island's peace process. Bougainville is about to open negotiations with Papua New Guinea following the overwhelming vote in favour of independence in a referendum late last year. In 1942, Bougainville was invaded by the Japanese in order to provide a support base for the operations elsewhere in the South-West Pacific. [9] Until about 10,000 years ago, during the Last Glacial Maximum, there was a single island referred to as "Greater Bougainville" that spanned from the northern tip of Buka Island to the Nggela Islands north of Guadalcanal. People queue to vote at a polling station in the capital Buka in an historical independence vote on November 25, 2019. After a short German control between March 1942 and November 1943, Bougainville was placed by the United Nations under Australian guardianship in 1947. The Buka Passage divides Buka from Bougainville Island. [citation needed] Bougainville's constitution, written in English, does not specify an official language, but calls for constitutional literature to be translated into Tok Pisin and as many local languages as possible, while also encouraging the "development, preservation, and enrichment of all Bougainville languages". The lingua franca of Bougainville is Tok Pisin, while a variety of Austronesian and non-Austronesian languages are also spoken. Then, if successful, the ratification by the Papuan Parliament in Port Moresby, the capital of the country, can occur. 1921 Australia wins a League of Nations mandate over what is now Papua New Guinea, including Bougainville. [17], The German Solomon Islands were administered through German New Guinea, although it took almost two decades for an administrative presence to be established. Its capital is Arawa. The … Canberra – and Beijing – are watching intently. For census purposes, the LLGAs are subdivided into wards, and those into census units.[33]. Bougainville Island, easternmost island of Papua New Guinea, in the Solomon Sea, southwestern Pacific.With Buka Island and several island groups, it forms the autonomous region of Bougainville. None of the languages are spoken by more than 20% of the population, and the larger languages such as Nasioi, Korokoro Motuna, Telei, and Halia are split into dialects that are not always mutually intelligible. [35], The Papuan languages are confined to the main island of Bougainville. Citizens of Bougainville, an autonomous region of Papua New Guinea, overwhelmingly voted for independence on Dec. 11, which means it may become the world’s newest country, CNN reported. The Allied counter-invasion resulted in heavy casualties, beginning in 1943, with full control of the islands not re-established until 1945. Bougainville Island (/ ˈ b uː ɡ ən v ɪ l / BOO-gən-vil; Tok Pisin: Bogenvil) is the main island of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville of Papua New Guinea.It formed the main landmass of the German Empire-associated North Solomons.Its land measures 9,300 km 2 (3,600 sq mi). The bustling waterway of Bougainville's capital Buka is seen on Nov. 21, 2019, ahead of an historic independence vote. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force, Australian occupation of German New Guinea, President of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, 2019 Bougainvillean independence referendum, Papua New Guinea national rugby league team, List of active separatist movements in Oceania, "AUTONOMOUS REGION OF BOUGAINVILLE : Bougainville Flag, Emblem and Anthem (Protection) Bill 2018", "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab", "The Constitution of the Autonomous Region of Bougainville", Will Marshall, "Papua New Guinea government obtains shaky weapons disposal pact in Bougainville", "Papua New Guinea not told of Australia's plans for new diplomatic post there", Canberra abandons Bougainville mission plan, "Bougainville confirms independence referendum before 2020 | Pacific Beat", "Ball rolling on Bougainville referendum", "Bougainville voters back independence by landslide", "Bougainville independence vote delivers emphatic demand to become world's newest nation", "Former rebel leader elected Bougainville president", "Pacific Regional Statistics - Secretariat of the Pacific Community", "Bougainville imposes moratorium on Panguna mine over fears of civil unrest", "BOUGAINVILLE FLAG, EMBLEM AND ANTHEM (PROTECTION) ACT 2018", "Bougainville Flag, Emblem and Anthem (Protection) Bill 2018: Explanatory Note", "New Executives Set To Revive Rugby League", "League Bilong Laif program commences in Bougainville", "Sport: Bougainville to make PNG National Soccer League debut", Full text of the Peace Agreement for Bougainville, Conciliation Resources—Bougainville Project, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Autonomous_Region_of_Bougainville&oldid=995661602, Members of the Unrepresented Nations and Peoples Organization, States and territories established in 2000, Articles lacking in-text citations from March 2020, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2015, All articles with vague or ambiguous time, Vague or ambiguous time from November 2019, Wikipedia external links cleanup from June 2019, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 05:42. [citation needed], A small percentage of the region's economy is from mining. British naval officer Philip Carteret saw Buka Island in 1767 and also visited what became the Carteret Islands. [16] The initial boundary between the two territories was much more southerly, with Choiseul Island, Santa Isabel Island, Ontong Java, the Shortland Islands, and part of the Florida Islands included in the German section. [39] A number of Bougainvilleans have played for the Papua New Guinea national rugby league team, including Bernard Wakatsi, Joe Katsi, Lauta Atoi, and Chris Siriosi. A civilian administration was established in 1920, after which German nationals were deported and their property expropriated. Activists proclaimed the independence of Bougainville (Republic of North Solomons) in 1975 and in 1990, but both times government forces suppressed the separatists. [14], The first Europeans to sight present-day Bougainville were the Dutch explorers Willem Schouten and Jacob Le Maire, who glimpsed Takuu Atoll and Nissan Island in 1616. At the background is Crown Prince Range where former giant Rio Tinto's Panguna Gold & Copper mine is located. The first one lies in negotiating between the governments of the autonomous region and that of Papua New Guinea. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics. [11] Around 3,000 years ago, Austronesian peoples brought the Lapita culture to the islands,[12] introducing pottery, agriculture, and domesticated animals such as pigs, dogs, and chickens. The two largest islands are Bougainville Island and Buka Island. Understand []. [citation needed], The languages of the northern end of Bougainville Island, and some scattered around the coast, belong to the Austronesian family. The population is 249,358 (2011 census). Understand . Conflict over the Panguna mine became the primary trigger for the Bougainville Civil War (1988–1998), which resulted in the deaths of up to 20,000 people. [48], Bougainvillean netball player Maleta Roberts has played professionally in Australia and represented the Papua New Guinea national netball team at the Commonwealth Games. Then in 1975, leaving the remit of Australia, Bougainville became a province of Papua New Guinea with an autonomous government. The population of the province is approximately 300,000 (2019 census), which includes islets such as the Carterets. [28] The governments of both Bougainville and Papua New Guinea held a two-week referendum period which began on 23 November 2019 and closed on 7 December 2019, which is the final step in the Bougainville Peace Agreement. Bougainville votes on independence from Papua New Guinea. After the war the Australian government incorporated Bougainville and the rest of the mandate into the Territory of Papua and New Guinea, the immediate predecessor of present-day Papua New Guinea. The Autonomous Region of Bougainville, a chain of islands that lie 959 kilometres northwest of Papua New Guinea’s capital, Port Moresby, has voted unequivocally for independence. The region includes several Polynesian outliers where Polynesian languages are spoken. About 207,000 Bougainvilleans are registered to vote on whether Melanesian isles will become world’s newest country. [15] A German protectorate over the northern islands was established later that year, but the British Solomon Islands Protectorate was not established until 1893. A peace agreement resulted in the creation of the Autonomous Bougainville Government. [34] There are many indigenous languages in the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, belonging to three language families. Bougainville, formerly an Australian colonial territory, has had a fractious relationship with Papua New Guinea since joining the country in 1976. The conflict involved pro-independence and loyalist Bougainvillean groups as well as the PNGDF. This vote was for "your peace, your history and your future" he said, and has demonstrated "the power of the pen against weapons". The island and province Bougainville is part of Papua New Guinea and is the largest of the Solomon Islands group. In late 2019, a non-binding independence referendum was held with 98.31% voting for independence rather than continued autonomy within Papua New Guinea. Bougainville has played in the National Soccer League since 2019, although it is based in Port Moresby rather than in Bougainville itself. It is an island with vast untapped potential for tourism with magnificently rugged, jungled terrain and amazing coral reefs offshore. Only 3,000 were in favour of a bigger self-governance. Bougainville could become the 194th member of the United Nations as well as the "youngest" country in the world, since the independence of South Sudan in 2011. In 2015 Australia announced it would establish a diplomatic post in Bougainville for the first time. On the nearby Takuu Atoll a Polynesian language is spoken, Takuu. Bannoni and Torau are Austronesian languages not closely related to the former, which are spoken in the coastal areas of central and south Bougainville. He supports autonomy within a relationship with the national government of Papua New Guinea. These constitute two language families, North Bougainville and South Bougainville. [13] Both Austronesian and non-Austronesian languages are spoken on the islands to this day, however there has been significant mixing between the populations to the point that cultural and genetic differences are no longer correlated with language. Buka, capital of Bougainville (Photo: Annmaree O'Keeffe) Published 9 Oct 2019 06:00 0 Comments Bougainville ; Papua New Guinea ... With 40% of Bougainville’s population under age 15, education is likely to be a top priority for the new country, which would need to consider how to deal with the reality that it only has seven lower secondary schools and four upper secondary schools. Both the flag and emblem feature stylised depictions of the upe, a traditional headdress worn by men in parts of Bougainville to symbolise their transition to adulthood. Pacific Island Referendum Could Give the World a Tiny New Country By . The Constitution of Bougainville specifies that the Autonomous Bougainville Government shall consist of three branches:[27], President John Momis confirmed that Bougainville would hold a non-binding independence referendum in 2019. Bougainville, a small island belonging to Papua New Guinea in the South Pacific, has taken a major decision. November 10, 2020 An Altamar podcast interview with Shane McLeod Research Fellow of The Lowy Institute’s Australia-PNG Network People queue to vote at a polling station in the capital city Buka, Bougainville, in a historical independence vote on November 25, 2019. Irwin, H. (1980). Bougainville votes on independence from Papua New Guinea About 207,000 Bougainvilleans are registered to vote on whether Melanesian isles will become world’s newest country… Bougainville is the largest island of the Solomon Islands archipelago, and an autonomous island region within Papua New Guinea.. The war claimed an estimated 15,000 to 20,000 lives.[22][23]. Bougainville (/ˈboʊɡənvɪl/ BOH-gən-vil;[3] Tok Pisin: Bogenvil[4][5]), officially the Autonomous Region of Bougainville,[6] is an autonomous region in Papua New Guinea. Other Austronesian languages include Nehan, Petats, Solos, Saposa (Taiof), Hahon and Tinputz, all spoken in the northern quarter of Bougainville, Buka and surrounding islands. During the colonial period the region was occupied and administered by the Germans, Australians, Japanese, and Americans for various periods. He has called on all parties to ensure that the follow-up will be "inclusive and constructive". The islands’ history includes colonial exploitation, attempts at independence, […] The languages of the north-central and southern lobes of the island belong to the North and South Bougainville families. : A Polynesian language of the South Pacific. Avec l'île Buka au nord et d'autres petites îles environnantes, elle constitue la province Bougainville, rattachée à la région des Îles. The administrative capital is Buka. The islands’ history includes colonial exploitation, attempts at independence, a nine-year war and a gradual peace process. [41] Previously, a team from Bougainville won the national soccer championships in 1977, defeating Rabaul. Takuu Dictionary. The interim capital is Buka, though it is expected that major government services and buildings will be moved to Arawa, following reconstruction. [12], The German Empire, which had already begun operations in New Guinea, annexed present-day Bougainville in 1886, after agreeing with the United Kingdom to divide the Solomon Islands archipelago between them. The German administrative station at Kieta, established in 1905, was preceded by a Marist mission, which succeeded in converting a majority of the islanders to Catholicism. These include Rotokas, a language with a very small inventory of phonemes, Eivo, Terei, Keriaka, Nasioi (Kieta), Nagovisi, Siwai (Motuna), Baitsi (sometimes considered a dialect of Siwai), Uisai and several others. [32], The region is divided into three districts, which are further divided into Local Level Government (LLGs) areas. Independence referendum to be held in Papua New Guinea province of Bougainville Off the coast of Queensland, a historic vote is taking place that could lead to the formation of a new nation. People line up to vote in a referendum on Bougainville's independence from Papua New Guinea, in the region's interim capital of Buka Town, on Nov. 25. [37][38], Rugby league in Bougainville is administered by the Bougainville Rugby Football League (BRFL), which is affiliated with the Papua New Guinea Rugby Football League (PNGRFL). The Bougainville Civil War, also known as the Bougainville conflict, was a multi-layered armed conflict fought from 1988 to 1998 in the North Solomons Province of Papua New Guinea (PNG) between PNG and the secessionist forces of the Bougainville Revolutionary Army (BRA), and between the BRA and other armed groups on Bougainville. The Sandline affair was a controversial incident that resulted from use of these mercenary troops. In 1996, Prime Minister Sir Julius Chan hired Sandline International, a private military company previously involved in supplying mercenaries in the civil war in Sierra Leone, to put down the rebellion. [30][31], Ishmael Toroama, a former rebel leader, was elected president of Bougainville on September 23, 2020. Within the country, your best bet is New Guinean national carrier Air Niugini (sound it out), which flies to Buka. [25] In 2016, it cancelled those plans acknowledging that it had not obtained the PNG government's approval.[26]. Bougainville is off the beaten track and far from easy to get to. The region's biodiversity, which is one of the most important in Oceania, is heavily threatened by mining activities. [18] The first fully commercial plantation was established in 1908, but German annexation had little economic impact. In the forground is Arawa Town Market. [36], A law passed by the provincial assembly – the Bougainville Flag, Emblem and Anthem (Protection) Act 2018 – affirmed the existing official status of the flag of Bougainville and emblem of Bougainville. Capital: • Buka (interim) • Arawa (traditional; inactive) Status: Autonomous region within Papua New Guinea: Update on the Bougainville Independence Process As we discussed in our Bougainville referendum explainer article last year, a YES vote in the referendum was never intended to result in immediate independence. Elections for the first autonomous government were held in May and June 2005; Joseph Kabui, an independence leader, was elected President. Lors du référendum d'autodétermination organisé du 23 … Prime Minister Sir Rabbie Namaliu ordered the Papua New Guinea Defense Force (PNGDF) to put down the rebellion, and the conflict escalated into a civil war. They will have to be ready to discuss the independence agenda. Geographically the islands of Bougainville and Buka are part of the Solomon Islands archipelago, but are politically separate from the independent country of Solomon Islands. Bougainville has been inhabited by humans for at least 29,000 years. The PNGDF retreated from permanent positions on Bougainville in 1990, but continued military action. Bougainville , officially the Autonomous Region of Bougainville, is an autonomous region in Papua New Guinea. Bougainville, the adjacent island of Buka, and assorted outlying islands including the Carterets are sometimes known as North Solomons. Ahern urged all parties to validate the outcome of the consultation. The Bougainville conflict ended in 1997, after negotiations brokered by New Zealand. Together they make up the Papua New Guinean province of that name. Historically the region was known as the North Solomons. Mining activities have caused civil unrest in the region many[quantify] times.[when?] 1768 French explorer Louis Antoine de Bougainville is the first European to reach the island.. 1886 and 1898 Anglo-German accords see Bougainville, ethnically and geographically part of the Solomons, become part of German New Guinea. Bougainville: The World’s Next Country? The 1919 Treaty of Versailles established the former colony as a League of Nations mandate, administered by Australia as the Territory of New Guinea. Bougainvillean separatism dates to the 1960s, and the Republic of North Solomons was declared shortly before the independence of Papua New Guinea in 1975; it was subsumed into Papua New Guinea the following year. Such a massive vote has no issue than making it inevitable. [49], Districts and Local Level Government Areas. On the second biggest island of the archipelago, Buka, referendum commission chairman and former Irish Prime Minister Bertie Ahern revealed the results. [40], F.C. [20] A number of punitive expeditions took place during both the German and Australian administrations, as part of "pacification" programs. Elle est composée principalement de l'île Bougainville et de quelques îles proches. Bougainville Referendum Commission Chairman Bertie Ahern (C) signs the referendum announcement in Bougainville on December 11, 2019. [43], During the 1970s and 1980s, teams from Bougainville played against other regions in the PNG national championships for Australian rules football,[44] cricket,[45] and field hockey. [47] Notable boxers from the region include Commonwealth Boxing Council titleholder Johnny Aba and Pacific Games gold medalist Thadius Katua. The majority of people on Bougainville are Christian, an estimated 70% being Roman Catholic and a substantial minority being of the Protestant United Church of Papua New Guinea since 1968. In 1768, French admiral Louis Antoine de Bougainville sailed along the east coast of the island that now bears his name. For general communication most Bougainvilleans use Tok Pisin as a lingua franca, and at least in the coastal areas Tok Pisin is often learned by children in a bilingual environment. As Bougainville is rich in copper and gold, a large mine had been established at Panguna in the early 1970s by Bougainville Copper Limited, a subsidiary of Rio Tinto. Bougainville est une île de Papouasie-Nouvelle-Guinée, l'une des plus grandes des îles Salomon dans le sud-ouest de l'océan Pacifique. Bougainville Explained: How the world’s newest country might bloom out of protests against a copper mine The conflict in Bougainville and the desire of Bougainvillean people for independence is rooted in the historic plunder of the resource-rich island that has large deposits of copper and the unequal distribution of wealth that followed. Image copyright Getty Images Image caption Women in tribal colours attend a Bougainville reconciliation ceremony in November An island group that’s part of Papua New Guinea is about to vote on independence. A peace agreement was completed in 2000 and, together with disarmament, provided for the establishment of an Autonomous Bougainville Government. This content is not available in your region, Researcher at the Lowy Institute in Sydney. Geographically, Bougainville is the largest of the Solomon Islands, located near the northern end of that chain.Bougainville is 75 miles (120 km) long and 40–60 miles (65–95 km) wide. Disputes by regional residents with the company over adverse environmental impacts, failure to share financial benefits, and negative social changes brought by the mine resulted in a local revival for a secessionist movement that had been dormant. 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